Optimized Partners II
(77331265)
Subscription terms. Subscriptions to this system cost $99.00 per month.
C2Star
C2Star is a certification program for trading strategies. In order to become "C2Star Certified," a strategy must apply tight risk controls, and must exhibit excellent performance characteristics, including low drawdowns.
You can read more about C2Star certification requirements here.
Note that: all trading strategies are risky, and C2Star Certification does not imply that a strategy is low risk.
Trendfollowing
Tries to take advantage of long, medium or shortterm moves that seem to play out in various markets. Typically, trendfollowing analysis is backward looking; that is, it attempts to recognize and profit from alreadyestablished trends.Momentum
Aims to capitalize on the continuance of existing trends in the market. Trader takes a long position in an asset in an upward trend, and shortsells a security that has been in a downward trend. While similar to Trendfollowing, tends to be more forwardlooking (predicting oncoming trend), while Momentum is more backwardlooking (observing alreadyestablished price direction).Rate of Return Calculations
Overview
To comply with NFA regulations, we display Cumulative Rate of Return for strategies with a track record of less than one year. For strategies with longer track records, we display Annualized (Compounded) Rate of Return.
How Annualized (Compounded) Rate of Return is calculated
= ((Ending_equity / Starting_equity) ^ (1 / age_in_years))  1
Remember that, following NFA requirements, strategy subscription costs and estimated commissions are included in markedtomarket equity calculations.
All results are hypothetical.
Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sep  Oct  Nov  Dec  YTD  

2012  +2.3%  (9.6%)  (1.5%)  (8.8%)  
2013  (3.6%)  +4.8%  +9.2%  +5.6%  +0.3%  +1.2%  +9.2%  (4.6%)  +5.6%  +4.4%  +18.5%  +8.2%  +74.1% 
2014  +1.1%  +13.3%  +2.4%  +5.6%  (1.7%)  +2.1%  (5.6%)  +5.2%  (3.9%)  +7.1%  +5.9%  +9.5%  +47.2% 
2015  (0.8%)  (4.4%)  +6.8%  (4.1%)  (3.1%)  (1.1%)  (3.2%)  (1.4%)  (1.3%)  +4.2%  (5.6%)  (5.9%)  (18.8%) 
2016  +2.0%  +4.2%  (2.2%)  +5.9%  (13.1%)  +8.0%  (3.3%)  +6.4%  (3.6%)  (5.2%)  +2.5%  +6.5%  +6.1% 
2017  +9.1%  (4.4%)  +7.7%  +9.0%  +5.2%  (4.6%)  +11.6%  +4.0%  +0.2%  +6.7%  +3.8%  (0.6%)  +57.2% 
2018  +11.6%  +0.3%  (0.5%)  (1%)  +1.8%  +0.8%  (3.4%)  +15.3%  +1.0%  (9.8%)  (2.2%)  +7.9%  +21.0% 
2019  +6.8%  (2.9%)  (0.3%)  +1.1%  (3.2%)  +9.9%  +3.1%  (5.7%)  (4.1%)  (5.4%)  +0.2%  +2.4%  +0.6% 
2020  +1.5%  (17.2%)  (0.9%)  (5.1%)    (21%) 
Model Account Details
A trading strategy on Collective2. Follow it in your broker account, or use a free simulated trading account.
Advanced users may want to use this information to adjust their AutoTrade scaling, or merely to understand the magnitudes of the nearby chart.
Started  $20,000  
Buy Power  $55,561  
Cash  $1  
Equity  $1  
Cumulative $  $53,813  
Includes dividends and cashsettled expirations:  $3,573  Itemized 
Total System Equity  $73,813  
Margined  $1  
Open P/L  $1,244  
Data has been delayed by 168 hours for nonsubscribers 
System developer has asked us to delay this information by 168 hours.
Trading Record
Statistics

Strategy began10/25/2012

Suggested Minimum Cap$15,000

Strategy Age (days)2772.7

Age92 months ago

What it tradesStocks

# Trades917

# Profitable407

% Profitable44.40%

Avg trade duration32.5 days

Max peaktovalley drawdown36.18%

drawdown periodJuly 29, 2019  April 21, 2020

Annual Return (Compounded)15.8%

Avg win$511.47

Avg loss$309.66
 Model Account Values (Raw)

Cash$54,273

Margin Used$0

Buying Power$55,561
 Ratios

W:L ratio1.36:1

Sharpe Ratio0.67

Sortino Ratio0.93

Calmar Ratio0.644
 CORRELATION STATISTICS

Return of Strat Pcnt  Return of SP500 Pcnt (cumu)89.69%

Correlation to SP5000.19090

Return Percent SP500 (cumu) during strategy life114.42%
 Return Statistics

Ann Return (w trading costs)15.8%
 Slump

Current Slump as Pcnt Equity0.51%
 Instruments

Percent Trades Futuresn/a
 Slump

Current Slump, time of slump as pcnt of strategy life0.11%
 Instruments

Short Options  Percent Covered100.00%
 Return Statistics

Return Pcnt (Compound or Annual, agebased, NFA compliant)0.158%
 Instruments

Percent Trades Optionsn/a

Percent Trades Stocks1.00%

Percent Trades Forexn/a
 Return Statistics

Ann Return (Compnd, No Fees)18.8%
 Risk of Ruin (MonteCarlo)

Chance of 10% account loss29.50%

Chance of 20% account loss11.00%

Chance of 30% account loss1.00%

Chance of 40% account lossn/a

Chance of 100% account loss (Monte Carlo)n/a

Chance of 70% account loss (Monte Carlo)n/a

Chance of 80% account loss (Monte Carlo)n/a

Chance of 60% account loss (Monte Carlo)n/a
 Automation

Percentage Signals Automatedn/a
 Risk of Ruin (MonteCarlo)

Chance of 90% account loss (Monte Carlo)n/a

Chance of 50% account lossn/a
 Popularity

Popularity (Today)0

Popularity (Last 6 weeks)891
 Trading Style

Any stock shorts? 0/10
 Popularity

C2 Score839

Popularity (7 days, Percentile 1000 scale)699
 Management

No Subs Allowed Flag (1: no subs)0

Strat abandoned?0
 TradesOwnSystem Certification

Trades Own System?

TOS percentn/a
 Win / Loss

Avg Loss$310

Avg Win$511

Sum Trade PL (losers)$157,927.000
 Age

Num Months filled monthly returns table92
 Win / Loss

Sum Trade PL (winners)$208,169.000

# Winners407

Num Months Winners53
 Dividends

Dividends Received in Model Acct3573
 Win / Loss

# Losers510

% Winners44.4%
 Frequency

Avg Position Time (mins)46756.80

Avg Position Time (hrs)779.28

Avg Trade Length32.5 days

Last Trade Ago1
 Leverage

Daily leverage (average)1.10

Daily leverage (max)2.74
 Regression

Alpha0.03

Beta0.20

Treynor Index0.20
 Maximum Adverse Excursion (MAE)

MAE:Equity, average, all trades0.01

MAE:PL  Winning Trades  this strat Percentile of All Strats48.99

MAE:PL  worst single value for strategy

MAE:PL  Losing Trades  this strat Percentile of All Strats35.39

MAE:PL (avg, winning trades)

MAE:PL (avg, losing trades)

MAE:PL (avg, all trades)0.26

MAE:Equity, average, winning trades0.00

MAE:Equity, average, losing trades0.01

Avg(MAE) / Avg(PL)  All trades5.684

MAE:Equity, losing trades only, 95th Percentile Value for this strat

MAE:Equity, win trades only, 95th Percentile Value for this strat

MAE:Equity, 95th Percentile Value for this strat0.02

Avg(MAE) / Avg(PL)  Winning trades0.315

Avg(MAE) / Avg(PL)  Losing trades1.283

HoldandHope Ratio0.177
 Analysis based on MONTHLY values, full history
 RATIO STATISTICS
 Ratio statistics of excess return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean0.16735

SD0.18652

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)0.89724

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)0.88957

df88.00000

t2.44350

p0.00827

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.16303

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio1.62654

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.15798

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation1.62116
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio1.58948

Upside Potential Ratio3.28891

Upside part of mean0.34628

Downside part of mean0.17893

Upside SD0.16015

Downside SD0.10529

N nonnegative terms48.00000

N negative terms41.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations89.00000

Mean of predictor0.07578

Mean of criterion0.16735

SD of predictor0.12289

SD of criterion0.18652

Covariance0.01094

r0.47725

b (slope, estimate of beta)0.72436

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)0.11246

Mean Square Error0.02717

DF error87.00000

t(b)5.06565

p(b)0.00000

t(a)1.82886

p(a)0.03542

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.44015

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta1.00858

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.00976

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.23468

Treynor index (mean / b)0.23103

Jensen alpha (a)0.11246
 Ratio statistics of excess log return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean0.14901

SD0.18483

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)0.80621

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)0.79932

df88.00000

t2.19559

p0.01538

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.07453

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio1.53345

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.07001

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation1.52863
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio1.34907

Upside Potential Ratio3.01861

Upside part of mean0.33342

Downside part of mean0.18441

Upside SD0.15307

Downside SD0.11046

N nonnegative terms48.00000

N negative terms41.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations89.00000

Mean of predictor0.06764

Mean of criterion0.14901

SD of predictor0.12667

SD of criterion0.18483

Covariance0.01159

r0.49482

b (slope, estimate of beta)0.72201

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)0.10017

Mean Square Error0.02609

DF error87.00000

t(b)5.31116

p(b)0.00000

t(a)1.66888

p(a)0.04937

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.45181

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.99222

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.01913

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.21948

Treynor index (mean / b)0.20639

Jensen alpha (a)0.10017
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (parametric)
 assuming log normal returns and losses (using central moments from Sharpe statistics)

VaR(95%)0.07258

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.09285
 assuming Pareto losses only (using partial moments from Sortino statistics)

VaR(95%)0.03263

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.06446
 ORDER STATISTICS
 Quartiles of return rates

Number of observations89.00000

Minimum0.83696

Quartile 10.98470

Median1.00786

Quartile 31.05347

Maximum1.16460

Mean of quarter 10.95200

Mean of quarter 20.99532

Mean of quarter 31.03691

Mean of quarter 41.08379

Inter Quartile Range0.06877

Number outliers low1.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.01124

Mean of outliers low0.83696

Number of outliers high1.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.01124

Mean of outliers high1.16460
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (based on Ex

Extreme Value Index (moments method)0.31593

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.04118

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.05064

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.22136

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.04187

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.06679
 DRAW DOWN STATISTICS
 Quartiles of draw downs

Number of observations16.00000

Minimum0.00063

Quartile 10.01593

Median0.03932

Quartile 30.07377

Maximum0.24462

Mean of quarter 10.00870

Mean of quarter 20.02880

Mean of quarter 30.05658

Mean of quarter 40.14825

Inter Quartile Range0.05784

Number outliers low0.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.00000

Mean of outliers low0.00000

Number of outliers high2.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.12500

Mean of outliers high0.20335
 Risk estimates based on draw downs (based on Extreme Value T

Extreme Value Index (moments method)0.39235

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.16140

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.19311

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.35653

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.20836

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.36956
 COMBINED STATISTICS

Annualized return (arithmetic extrapolation)0.36596

Compounded annual return (geometric extrapolation)0.19354

Calmar ratio (compounded annual return / max draw down)0.79118

Compounded annual return / average of 25% largest draw downs1.30549

Compounded annual return / Expected Shortfall lognormal2.08441

0.00000

0.00000
 Analysis based on DAILY values, full history
 RATIO STATISTICS
 Ratio statistics of excess return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean0.15905

SD0.15736

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)1.01075

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)1.01036

df1955.00000

t2.76169

p0.46034

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.29261

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio1.72864

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.29234

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation1.72838
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio1.40839

Upside Potential Ratio8.74181

Upside part of mean0.98723

Downside part of mean0.82818

Upside SD0.10997

Downside SD0.11293

N nonnegative terms1077.00000

N negative terms879.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations1956.00000

Mean of predictor0.08879

Mean of criterion0.15905

SD of predictor0.16992

SD of criterion0.15736

Covariance0.00500

r0.18706

b (slope, estimate of beta)0.17323

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)0.14400

Mean Square Error0.02391

DF error1954.00000

t(b)8.41725

p(b)0.40647

t(a)2.53748

p(a)0.47135

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.13287

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.21359

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.03263

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.25471

Treynor index (mean / b)0.91817

Jensen alpha (a)0.14367
 Ratio statistics of excess log return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean0.14657

SD0.15783

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)0.92868

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)0.92832

df1955.00000

t2.53746

p0.46354

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.21067

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio1.64649

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.21041

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation1.64623
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio1.28092

Upside Potential Ratio8.57460

Upside part of mean0.98115

Downside part of mean0.83458

Upside SD0.10902

Downside SD0.11443

N nonnegative terms1077.00000

N negative terms879.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations1956.00000

Mean of predictor0.07426

Mean of criterion0.14657

SD of predictor0.17064

SD of criterion0.15783

Covariance0.00505

r0.18770

b (slope, estimate of beta)0.17360

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)0.13368

Mean Square Error0.02404

DF error1954.00000

t(b)8.44712

p(b)0.40615

t(a)2.35468

p(a)0.47340

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.13330

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.21391

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.02234

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.24502

Treynor index (mean / b)0.84428

Jensen alpha (a)0.13368
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (parametric)
 assuming log normal returns and losses (using central moments from Sharpe statistics)

VaR(95%)0.01536

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.01936
 assuming Pareto losses only (using partial moments from Sortino statistics)

VaR(95%)0.00674

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.01388
 ORDER STATISTICS
 Quartiles of return rates

Number of observations1956.00000

Minimum0.93270

Quartile 10.99607

Median1.00106

Quartile 31.00608

Maximum1.04477

Mean of quarter 10.98887

Mean of quarter 20.99880

Mean of quarter 31.00323

Mean of quarter 41.01194

Inter Quartile Range0.01001

Number outliers low63.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.03221

Mean of outliers low0.97255

Number of outliers high41.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.02096

Mean of outliers high1.02603
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (based on Ex

Extreme Value Index (moments method)0.23145

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.01052

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.01690

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.13975

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.01019

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.01524
 DRAW DOWN STATISTICS
 Quartiles of draw downs

Number of observations68.00000

Minimum0.00003

Quartile 10.00529

Median0.02419

Quartile 30.05604

Maximum0.29578

Mean of quarter 10.00226

Mean of quarter 20.01353

Mean of quarter 30.03886

Mean of quarter 40.10535

Inter Quartile Range0.05075

Number outliers low0.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.00000

Mean of outliers low0.00000

Number of outliers high3.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.04412

Mean of outliers high0.20679
 Risk estimates based on draw downs (based on Extreme Value T

Extreme Value Index (moments method)0.12577

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.10994

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.15366

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.35604

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.12256

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.20731
 COMBINED STATISTICS

Annualized return (arithmetic extrapolation)0.35882

Compounded annual return (geometric extrapolation)0.19062

Calmar ratio (compounded annual return / max draw down)0.64447

Compounded annual return / average of 25% largest draw downs1.80937

Compounded annual return / Expected Shortfall lognormal9.84786

0.00000

0.00000
 Analysis based on DAILY values, last 6 months only
 RATIO STATISTICS
 Ratio statistics of excess return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean0.35341

SD0.16575

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)2.13215

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)2.11982

df130.00000

t1.50766

p0.56554

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio4.91205

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.65575

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation4.90358

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.66393
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio2.29964

Upside Potential Ratio3.80814

Upside part of mean0.58523

Downside part of mean0.93864

Upside SD0.06421

Downside SD0.15368

N nonnegative terms63.00000

N negative terms68.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations131.00000

Mean of predictor0.00092

Mean of criterion0.35341

SD of predictor0.44428

SD of criterion0.16575

Covariance0.01732

r0.23521

b (slope, estimate of beta)0.08775

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)0.35333

Mean Square Error0.02615

DF error129.00000

t(b)2.74855

p(b)0.35165

t(a)1.54484

p(a)0.58554

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.02458

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.15092

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.80584

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.09919

Treynor index (mean / b)4.02736

Jensen alpha (a)0.35333
 Ratio statistics of excess log return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean0.36755

SD0.16850

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)2.18137

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)2.16876

df130.00000

t1.54246

p0.56703

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio4.96171

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.60721

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation4.95308

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.61555
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio2.34333

Upside Potential Ratio3.71768

Upside part of mean0.58312

Downside part of mean0.95067

Upside SD0.06393

Downside SD0.15685

N nonnegative terms63.00000

N negative terms68.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations131.00000

Mean of predictor0.09974

Mean of criterion0.36755

SD of predictor0.44746

SD of criterion0.16850

Covariance0.01765

r0.23408

b (slope, estimate of beta)0.08815

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)0.35876

Mean Square Error0.02704

DF error129.00000

t(b)2.73467

p(b)0.35235

t(a)1.54248

p(a)0.58541

VAR (95 Confidence Intrvl)0.01500

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.02437

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.15192

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.81894

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.10142

Treynor index (mean / b)4.16971

Jensen alpha (a)0.35876
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (parametric)
 assuming log normal returns and losses (using central moments from Sharpe statistics)

VaR(95%)0.01835

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.02261
 assuming Pareto losses only (using partial moments from Sortino statistics)

VaR(95%)0.00828

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.01779
 ORDER STATISTICS
 Quartiles of return rates

Number of observations131.00000

Minimum0.94079

Quartile 10.99722

Median1.00005

Quartile 31.00358

Maximum1.01417

Mean of quarter 10.98670

Mean of quarter 20.99930

Mean of quarter 31.00172

Mean of quarter 41.00741

Inter Quartile Range0.00636

Number outliers low10.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.07634

Mean of outliers low0.97126

Number of outliers high1.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.00763

Mean of outliers high1.01417
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (based on Ex

Extreme Value Index (moments method)0.44571

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.01100

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.02386

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.36847

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.01390

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.02826
 DRAW DOWN STATISTICS
 Quartiles of draw downs

Number of observations7.00000

Minimum0.00007

Quartile 10.00281

Median0.00815

Quartile 30.02819

Maximum0.25055

Mean of quarter 10.00023

Mean of quarter 20.00669

Mean of quarter 30.02313

Mean of quarter 40.14190

Inter Quartile Range0.02538

Number outliers low0.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.00000

Mean of outliers low0.00000

Number of outliers high1.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.14286

Mean of outliers high0.25055
 Risk estimates based on draw downs (based on Extreme Value T

Extreme Value Index (moments method)0.00000

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.00000

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.00000

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.00000

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.00000

Last 4 Months  Pcnt Negative0.75%

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.00000

Strat Max DD how much worse than SP500 max DD during strat life?278041000

Max Equity Drawdown (num days)267
 COMBINED STATISTICS

Annualized return (arithmetic extrapolation)0.31237

Compounded annual return (geometric extrapolation)0.28798

Calmar ratio (compounded annual return / max draw down)1.14940

Compounded annual return / average of 25% largest draw downs2.02943

Compounded annual return / Expected Shortfall lognormal12.73770
Strategy Description
Who am I? After my degree in Finance from Northeastern University in Boston I started out at Lehman Brothers in Boston in 1982 as an assistant trader. In 1984 I went to EF Hutton in Los Angeles and became Options Trading Coordinator in Beverly Hills. During this time I placed second in the 1987 US Trading Championship in the Options Writing Category and was featured in Investors Business Daily and Barrons and various radio stations. By 1990 I moved to AG Edwards and Sons and remained there until 1995 when I opened up my own shop. Since all three firms no longer exist I consider this the best move I ever made.
I'm no longer live in the big cities but manage client portfolios and C2 portfolios daily from my ranch near Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado.
In my 35 years I've explored, tested and traded hundreds of systems and made just about every mistake that can be made and then some. What we provide to subscribers to C2 is the end result of all the years of education and experience of being a professional investor and we hope it makes a difference in your life.
Brad Pappas
Most values on this page (including the Strategy Equity Chart, above) have been adjusted by estimated trading commissions and subscription costs.
Some advanced users find it useful to see "raw" Model Account values. These numbers do not include any commissions, fees, subscription costs, or dividend actions.
Strategy developers can "archive" strategies at any time. This means the strategy Model Account is reset to its initial level and the trade list cleared. However, all archived track records are permanently preserved for evaluation by potential subscribers.
About the results you see on this Web site
Past results are not necessarily indicative of future results.
These results are based on simulated or hypothetical performance results that have certain inherent limitations. Unlike the results shown in an actual performance record, these results do not represent actual trading. Also, because these trades have not actually been executed, these results may have underor overcompensated for the impact, if any, of certain market factors, such as lack of liquidity. Simulated or hypothetical trading programs in general are also subject to the fact that they are designed with the benefit of hindsight. No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to these being shown.
In addition, hypothetical trading does not involve financial risk, and no hypothetical trading record can completely account for the impact of financial risk in actual trading. For example, the ability to withstand losses or to adhere to a particular trading program in spite of trading losses are material points which can also adversely affect actual trading results. There are numerous other factors related to the markets in general or to the implementation of any specific trading program, which cannot be fully accounted for in the preparation of hypothetical performance results and all of which can adversely affect actual trading results.
Material assumptions and methods used when calculating results
The following are material assumptions used when calculating any hypothetical monthly results that appear on our web site.
 Profits are reinvested. We assume profits (when there are profits) are reinvested in the trading strategy.
 Starting investment size. For any trading strategy on our site, hypothetical results are based on the assumption that you invested the starting amount shown on the strategy's performance chart. In some cases, nominal dollar amounts on the equity chart have been rescaled downward to make current goforward trading sizes more manageable. In these cases, it may not have been possible to trade the strategy historically at the equity levels shown on the chart, and a higher minimum capital was required in the past.
 All fees are included. When calculating cumulative returns, we try to estimate and include all the fees a typical trader incurs when AutoTrading using AutoTrade technology. This includes the subscription cost of the strategy, plus any pertrade AutoTrade fees, plus estimated broker commissions if any.
 "Max Drawdown" Calculation Method. We calculate the Max Drawdown statistic as follows. Our computer software looks at the equity chart of the system in question and finds the largest percentage amount that the equity chart ever declines from a local "peak" to a subsequent point in time (thus this is formally called "Maximum Peak to Valley Drawdown.") While this is useful information when evaluating trading systems, you should keep in mind that past performance does not guarantee future results. Therefore, future drawdowns may be larger than the historical maximum drawdowns you see here.
Trading is risky
There is a substantial risk of loss in futures and forex trading. Online trading of stocks and options is extremely risky. Assume you will lose money. Don't trade with money you cannot afford to lose.
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Suggested Minimum Capital
This is our estimate of the minimum amount of capital to follow a strategy, assuming you use the smallest reasonable AutoTrade Scaling % for the strategy.